Mary Robinson (1756 – 1800)

Mary Robinson, née Darby

Mary Robinson, best known as ‘Perdita’ for her portrayal in Shakespeare’s ‘The Winter’s Tale’, was a renowned actress, poet and feminist writer whose life was interspersed with scandal and misfortune. Born Mary Darby in Bristol in 1758, she created a name for herself in fashionable London circles and became a woman of notoriety, frequently caricatured and painted.

‘Mrs Robinson of Englefield Green, Egham’.
SHC REF: PX/56/55

One of five children, she was educated by private tutors, until her father’s unsuccessful business venture on the south coast of Labrador left her family in debt and her parents separated. She was then moved to London and after a series of failed tutors was sent to a finishing school in Marylebone. There was talk of Mary going on the stage at this point, but her debut as Cordelia in King Lear’ was postponed after she met her future husband, Thomas Robinson. Mary married him on 12 April 1773 in Westminster, although it was a loveless marriage.

From that point Mary Robinson dedicated herself to a fashionable life, becoming known in prominent London locations. In the meantime however, Thomas Robinson had fallen deeply into debt and in 1774 they fled to Tregunter in Wales, where Mary gave birth to her first child, Maria Elizabeth. After their return to London, Robinson was arrested and committed to the Fleet prison where Mary resided with him. Here she published her first book of poetry, which did not sell well. However after her husband’s release she suggested she should go on the stage again.

She first appeared as Juliet in ‘Romeo and Juliet’ in 1776, but by 1777 had appeared as the lead in three more plays. From there she went on to star as Ophelia, as Lady Anne in ‘Richard the Third’, as Emily in ‘The Runaway’, and as Lady Macbeth, to name a few. It was in her final season of 1779-80 that she played Perdita in ‘The Winter’s Tale’, landed her moniker and drew the attention of the Prince of Wales.

A portrait depicting the Prince of Wales, later George IV as Florizel, and his mistress Mary Robinson as Perdita, in an adaptation of ‘The Winter’s Tale’.
By B. Pownall, Pall Mall. Images courtesy of the United States Library of Congress.

The Prince first saw her perform in 1779 and after 4 days, claimed to be passionately in love with her. Letters show that by 1780 they were lovers, and ‘Perdita’ began a life of extravagance soon falling into debt. The Prince’s affections were short lived, he transferred them to another lady and Mary threatened to go to the press, resulting in the Prince rewarding her with the sum of £5000 (more than £520,000 in today’s money) for her silence. The affair with the Prince was by no means her last. She was later linked to Lord Maldon, fifth Earl of Essex, the Duc de Lauzan in Paris, and upon her return had a string of affairs with Colonel Banastre Tarleton and Charles James Fox, a prominent Whig. Although Mary was spiralling further into debt, the papers reported on her busy social life, and she remained an influential woman in society.

From 1788 Mary wrote poetry for numerous respected papers as well as pamphlets, articles and novels. She was a strong supporter of the French Revolution which heavily influenced her work. She covered many topics, some controversial, and all of them heavily feminist. She satirized the merchant class, and was said to be admired by Samuel Coleridge, having inspired the poem ‘Kubla Khan’ due to her interest in the effects of opium on the creative imagination. She was friends with a number of literary greats, including John Wolcot, Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin.

A postcard depicting ‘Tea at Englefield Green’ by Paul Sandby (1725-1802), where Mary spent the last of her days.
SHC REF: PC/56/62

Mary’s connection with Surrey comes towards the end of her life. In 1797 she separated from Colonel Banastre Tarleton and as her financial situation declined, so did her health. She lived the remainder of her days at her daughter’s house in Englefield Green near Egham and died on the 26th December 1800. Although born from humble beginnings, she spiralled into a world of fame and vice. Her life was a whirlwind of successes and failures and her literary works are still influential to literary Romanticism to this day.

Written by Portia Tremlett


Engraving of ‘Mrs Robinson of Englefield Green, Egham’, nd [early 19th cent], (SHC ref: PX/56/55)

Postcard depicting ‘Tea at Englefield Green’ by Paul Sandby (1725-1802), where Mary spent the last of her days (SHC ref: PC/56/62)

A portrait of Mary Robinson by John Hopper, c.1782, can be seen in the at Chawton House, Hampshire (the home of Jane Austen’s brother, Edward Knight), as part of the collection relating to Women Writers. It appears on their web page

For a downloadable pdf (PDF ) biography of Mary Robinson by Katherine Binhammer, see

A portrait depicting the Prince of Wales, later George IV as Florizel, and his mistress Mary Robinson as Perdita, in an adaptation of ‘The Winter’s Tale’, by B. Pownall, Pall Mall, is held at The United States Library of Congress.

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