The village centre is in the adjoining county of Buckinghamshire but extends eastwards over the Colne Brook into the part of Surrey that was formerly Middlesex. The village is 3 miles north of Staines on the old Bath Road.
From the 13th to 17th century it was known as Rudsworth and the old name was lost in the 19th century. The Bath Road was turnpiked through Colnbrook in 1727 and a toll house was erected opposite Poyle Road. The settlement grew along the road to produce an enclosed linear pattern and relied upon the road for its prosperity. In the area and associated with the Bath Road are three waterpumps, the nearest at Poyle Road junction, which were used for laying the dust on the road.
In about 1830 the first Coxs Orange Pippin apple was grown in the orchard of Richard Cox along the Bath Road at Colnbrook End. Market gardening is still important in the neighbourhood.