• March of the Women

Margaretta ‘Etta’ Lemon (1860-1953)

Anti Suffragist and the ‘dragon’ of Redhill who saved the birds

Etta Lemon and Frank Lemon, 1913 (SHC ref 6918/1/4/4).

Margaretta (Etta) Louisa Lemon MBE of Reigate was a co-founder of the all-female organisation that later became the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB). Renowned for her public speaking, she lobbied for legislation to protect wild birds against the fashion for wearing feathered hats which she claimed was ‘murderous millinery’. She was a member of the Reigate Board of Guardians and the Board of Managers for Earlswood Asylum but a staunch anti suffragist, heading a branch of the East Surrey Anti-Suffrage League. Her biographer, Tessa Boase, tells us more.

On a hot June afternoon in 2017, I walked up Whitepost Hill towards Redhill Common with an address in my hand. For many months now I’d been researching the story of Etta Lemon – a magnificent woman with a magnificent name; a name that once inspired terror and admiration not only in Redhill and Reigate, but nationwide. Etta Lemon was the prime mover behind the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, founded in 1889 to stamp out the fashion for feathers in hats.

For the first 50 years of its history, Britain’s biggest conservation charity was run by the indomitable Mrs Lemon – a woman so trenchant in her views, so passionate on behalf of the birds, that a director of the Natural History Museum once hid down a stairwell rather than face her in lobbying mode. She was known, in her time, as ‘Mother of the Birds’. She was also known as ‘the dragon’, and lived on in RSPB folklore long after she had been forcibly removed from her perch, aged 80, in 1939.

And yet, today, nobody has heard of her, or of her all-female campaign. For three decades, Etta and her local secretaries battled to quench the insatiable fashion for feathered and bird-bedecked hats – a fashion decimating birdlife around the world. She successfully lobbied Parliament for a plumage importation ban, a bill passed in 1921. She helped save the snowy egret from extinction, running a hard-hitting campaign that targeted feather wearers in the department store, in church and on the street with graphic images of avian slaughter. Her activism pre-dated Mrs Pankhurst’s campaign by over a decade. Call her, if you like, an ornithological suffragette.

Four snowy egrets had to die to make up one ounce of the airy plumage known as the Osprey, 1911 (Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery).

The bird protection campaign was waged from offices in Westminster, but it was masterminded from Redhill, Surrey. This was the long-term home of Etta and her barrister husband Frank Lemon, moving here from Blackheath as newlyweds in 1893. ‘Hillcrest’ is still standing, a detached Victorian house facing the glorious Common, with sweeping views to the North Downs. I walked up the hill on that hot afternoon to have a look. Perhaps I would even boldly knock at the door? I wasn’t sure.

On the terrace stood an ornamental birdbath: a good omen. In the porch were an outrageous pair of gold sandals, and many small wellington boots. I knocked on the door. It was eventually flung open by a young woman with a preoccupied face, shrieks of children behind her. Hesitantly, I explained my mission.

Catherine Hutchison had never heard of Mrs Lemon – but she had, of course, heard of the RSPB, and so she let me in. The family hadn’t lived here long and had just finished purging the house of its Victorian past. A series of gloomy rooms had been knocked through to bring in the light, as is the modern way. I stood in the open-plan kitchen and tried hard to channel the Lemons. It was here that local worthies once gathered for dinner around the mahogany dining table; dinners that got ever more elaborate when Frank Lemon was made Mayor of Reigate in 1911. Mrs Lemon would have made a formidable Lady Mayoress, a woman known as much for her national campaigning as for her tireless local good works.

Catherine remembered an envelope of old papers they had inherited with the house, and I tried to contain my excitement as she emptied the contents onto the kitchen counter. Inside was an extraordinary cache of Lemon family photographs and legal documents, left in the house at Etta’s death in 1953.

Frank and Etta outside their home since 1893: Hillcrest, Whitepost Hill, Redhill Common. (Courtesy of the Lemon family).

One photograph intrigued me, taken outside the front porch. Frank Lemon stands with his foot on the bench, eyes on the camera, in a commanding pose. Etta sits in an entirely subservient position, dwarfed by her flower-topped hat, her long skirts spread wide. (No feathers for her – not even a humanely harvested ostrich plume, a feather permitted by the RSPB.) She looks stoically into the distance: the quintessential Victorian wife.

When I started researching Etta Lemon and the early RSPB, I assumed that she would be in favour of women’s suffrage. This redoubtable personality, a woman not afraid to swim against the current, renowned for her public speaking and ‘masculine’ dominance of the field – how could she not get behind the ultimate battle for equality? But then I discovered an urgent clarion call in the Surrey Mirror. In a letter dated 27 June 1908, Etta called for ‘anti suffrages women in the neighbourhood’ to contact her, now that she sat on the ‘Central Organising Committee’ of the National Anti-Women’s Suffrage Association. She vehemently believed that extending the franchise to women would ‘work irrevocable mischief to human progress, to the British Empire, and to women themselves.’

The Times, Friday, December 09, 1910; p.6

Her staunchly anti-suffrage stance shocked me. Etta was not the pro-women heroine I’d imagined she was, despite her leading role in founding an all-female conservation society. Yet the more I researched the anti-suffrage movement – hugely significant at the time, but now a forgotten women’s campaign – the more I came to understand that, for a large majority of Edwardian women, being anti-suffrage did not necessarily mean anti-feminist.

As Lady Mayoress, Mrs Lemon exemplified perfectly the ‘Forward Policy’ of the female ‘Antis’, as they were known. Local government was the perfect forum for the formidable talents of women like Etta, and here they already held significant power. Etta was known locally not just for her role within the RSPB, but as local secretary for the RSPCA, head of Reigate’s British Women’s Temperance Society and head of the local Red Cross. By simply embodying womanly capability with all possible dignity, Etta Lemon sent out a strong message to the local faction of the ‘shrieking sisterhood’.

Cartoon from U.S magazine Puck pointing out that it was women, not plume hunters who were to blame for the near-extinction of the snowy egret in the Florida Everglades (Courtesy of Library of Congress).

Surrey was ‘rather a nest of suffragettes’, according to local accountant Edwin Waterhouse (founder of Price Waterhouse). Within a twenty mile radius of the Lemon’s Redhill home resided some of the most notorious names of the campaign for the vote. Militants fresh out of prison recuperated at the Woking home of the composer Ethel Smyth, who that year wrote ‘The March of the Women’ for Mrs Pankhurst’s suffragettes; they were also hosted at the house of her treasurer Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence – a Dutch-style country idyll, The Mascot, in South Holmwood. Strange things happened at The Mascot, went the rumours; unnatural goings-on between women.

The village of Peaslake fairly swarmed with suffragettes, including Marion Wallace Dunlop (no-nonsense in tweeds, the first imprisoned militant to go on hunger strike in 1908) and Hilda Brackenbury (a formidable general’s widow, whose daughters had each served six weeks in Holloway).

The well-heeled suffragists and suffragettes of Surrey were matched, like for like, by its Antis. The county heaved with them, with the most prominent Anti of all – Lord Curzon, former Viceroy of India – stirring up support from his rented country pile, Reigate Priory. The first suffragette novel was written that year, ten miles to the Lemons’ north, in Sanderstead, Croydon: No Surrender, by rectors’ daughter Constance Maud.

In supporting the Antis, Mrs Lemon was entirely representative of her class, her Christian beliefs and her conservative mindset. She was ruled, instinctively, by men. At the RSPB she deferred increasingly to the male ornithologists who supported her campaign. It wasn’t long before the men of influence began to

Anti suffrage propaganda playing on the use of bird feathers in hats (Courtesy Chronicle/Alamy Stock Photos).

outnumber the women who ran the society.

Inevitably, the men took over. The women had done such a good job in growing and running the RSPB, that it became a rather smart and attractive cause. Lord Curzon, Lord Grey, Thomas Hardy, Bertrand Russell… all the great and good of Edwardian society queued up to put their names to saving the birds from ‘murderous millinery’.

Etta Lemon was ousted from her own charity by an internal coup in 1939, shortly after her husband Frank’s death. I discovered poignant letters in the RSPB archives. ‘I am quite bewildered, & do not know where I am,’ wrote Etta, then aged 79, to one of her trusted male ‘Watchers’ at an RSPB reserve (the Watchers were her own invention; a nation-wide system of eyes and ears for bird protection). She felt caught in a ‘network of malevolent intrigue’.

Mrs Lemon died in a Reigate nursing home in 1953, aged 92, and her granite headstone now leans lopsidedly to the right in St Mary’s cemetery. Her name is carved simply beneath her husband’s, and her extraordinary contribution to the protection of birdlife goes unmentioned. Today, few, if any, know that Britain’s largest nature conservation charity was once inextricably linked to the towns of Redhill and Reigate. It’s just possible that the ghost of Mrs Lemon haunts her favourite bird-watching spots on the North Downs still, Porro Prism binoculars at the ready.

Emily Williamson

It was Mrs Emily Williamson of Didsbury, Manchester, who came up with the name ‘Society for the Protection of Birds’. Her all-female group was founded in 1889, with each lady signing a pledged to wear no feathers, ‘game birds and ostrich excepted’.  In 1891 they merged with another women’s group in Croydon: the Fur, Fin and Feather Folk. With Emily’s group providing the name, and the Croydon group supplying the energy, young Etta Lemon drove the new society forcefully forward. In 1912, Emily and husband Robert moved south to Brook, Surrey, to be near her nephews at Charterhouse. While anthropologist Robert travelled widely, Emily ran the local Surrey branch of the RSPB. Whether she was for or against Votes for Women, we simply do not know.

Contributed by Tessa Boase.


Tessa Boase, Mrs Pankhurst’s Purple Feather: Fashion, Fury and Feminism – Women’s Fight for Change (Aurum Press), 2018.
Tessa Boase’s blog on Etta Lemon for The March of the Women.
The March of the Women online exhibition featuring Etta Lemon and Surrey’s anti suffrage campaign.
An article by Tessa Boase for Surrey Life magazine on Etta Lemon.
Photograph album entitled ‘Borough of Reigate Jubilee year of incorporation: some portraits’ containing photographs of Frank and Etta Lemon see SHC ref 6918/1/4/4.
Donald Mackenzie, Mayors and Aldermen of Great Britain and Provosts and Bailies of Scotland (1935) lists the mayors who had held office 1935, see pp.640-641 for Frank Lemon J.P. M.A. LL.B. who had been Mayor of Reigate, 1911-12 and 1912-13.  Frank Lemon was born in 1859 and had married Margaretta Louisa Smith in 1892. He was first elected as a Councillor in 1905 and made an Alderman in 1918.
Alan Moore, A History of Redhill, Volume Two 1900-1925 (Alan Moore, 2003) includes several brief references to F.E. Lemon (pp.99, 101, 170) and Etta’s Lemon’s involvement with the war memorial committee (pp.132, 134).
Ancestry for references to the wills of Frank (died 22 April 1935) and Margaretta Lemon (8 July 1953) on the National Probate Calendar and entry for Mrs Margaretta Lemon in a Roll of Honour which was published a supplement to the London Gazette, 30 March 1920 (in UK, Shipping and Seamen WWI and WWII Rolls of Honour). The entry relates to Etta’s work as Mrs Lemon as Commandant of the Redhill Clinic and War Hospital during the First World.
There is a burial record for Frank Lemon at St Mary’s, Reigate, on 25 April 1935, SHC ref. 6909/1/23.
Elizabeth Crawford, The Women’s Suffrage Movement  – a regional survey (2006), features a section on Surrey (pp.186-189) and mentions Mrs Lemon as a leading member of the East Surrey branch of the Anti Suffrage League along with Mrs Rundell (p.188). The branch formed by December 1908.
For an article on the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) website featuring women in the RSPB including Etta Lemon.
Records of the Women’s National Anti-Suffrage League can be found at The Women’s Library https://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/rd/b6d407cb-0474-415f-aad1-085677566fb7

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *